Air transport properties in the human respiratory system by using numerical simulation

  • A. A. Issakhov al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
  • A. Abylkassymova al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan


This paper considers air transport in the human respiratory system with the numerical simulation. Investigation of air flow in the human nasal cavity is of considerable interest, since breathing is done mainly through the nose. Nasal breathing is important to maintain the internal environment of lung, as the ambient temperature becomes alveolar conditions when the nasopharynx. In this study conducted a two-dimensional numerical simulation of air transport in the model cross-sections of the nasal cavity to normal human nose, which based on the Navier-Stokes equations, the equations for temperature and equation for relative humidity. For the numerical solution of this system of equations is used projection method. The obtained data transfer numerical modeling air human nasal cavity were verified with known numerical results in the form of velocity and temperature profiles. Numerical modeling results show that with normal breathing through a human nose have enough time to heat and water exchange to achieve intraalveolar state. The nasal cavity accelerates heat by narrowing the air passages and twists of the turbinates walls of the inner cavity.


[1] Chorin, A.J. "Numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations."Math. Comp. 22(1968): 745-762.
[2] Cole, P. "Some aspects of temperature, moisture and heat relationships in the upper respiratory tract,"J. Laryngol. Otol. 67 (1953): 669-681.
[3] Chung, T.J., "Computational Fluid Dynamics,"Cambridge University Press, (2002), 1012 p.
[4] Farley, R. D., and Patel, K. R. "Comparison of air warming in human airway with thermodynamic model,"Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26 (1988): 628-632.
[5] Ferziger, J.H. and Peric M. "Computational Methods for Fluid Dynamics, third edition,"Springer, (2013), 426 p.
[6] Fletcher, C. A.J. and Fletcher, C. A. "Computational Techniques for Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 1: Fundamental and General Techniques,"Springer. (2013). 401 p.
[7] Girardin, M., E. Bilgen, and P. Arbour. "Experimental study of velocity fields in a human nasal fossa by laser anemometry,"Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 92(1983): 231-236.
[8] Hanna L. M., and Scherer P. W. "Measurement of local mass transfer coefficients in a cast model of the human upper respiratory tract,"J. Biomech. Eng. 108(1986): 12-18.
[9] Ingelstedt S. "Studies on conditioning of air in the respiratory tract."Acta Oto-Laryngol. Suppl. 131(1956): 1-80.
[10] Issakhov A. "Mathematical modeling of the discharged heat water effect on the aquatic environment from thermal power plant,"International Journal of Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation 16(5) (2015): 229-238. doi:10.1515/ijnsns-2015-0047.
[11] Issakhov A. "Mathematical modeling of the discharged heat water effect on the aquatic environment from thermal power plant under various operational capacities,"Applied Mathematical Modelling Volume 40, Issue 2 (2016): 1082-1096.
[12] Issakhov A. "Large eddy simulation of turbulent mixing by using 3D decomposition method,"J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 318(4) (2011): 1282-1288. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/318/4/042051.
[13] Maran A. G. D., and Lund V. J. "Clinical Rhinology,"New York: Thieme Medical. (1990).
[14] McFadden E. R. "Respiratory heat and water exchange: Physiological and clinical implications,"J. Appl. Physiol. 54(1983): 331-336.
[15] Naftali S., Schroter R. C., Shiner R. J. and Elad D. "Transport Phenomena in the Human Nasal Cavity: A Computational Model,"Annals of biomedical engineering (1998): 831-839.
[16] Peyret R. and Taylor D.Th. "Computational Methods for Fluid Flow,"Springer–Verlag, NewYork:Berlin, (1983). 358 p.
[17] Pletcher R. H., Tannehill J. C. and Anderson D. "Computational Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Third Edition (Series in Computational and Physical Processes in Mechanics and Thermal Sciences),"CRC Press. (2011). 774 p.
[18] Roache P.J. "Computational Fluid Dynamics,"Hermosa Publications, Albuquerque, NM, (1972). 434 p.
[19] Webb P. "Air temperatures in respiratory tracts of resting subjects,"J. Appl. Physiol. 4(1951): 378-382.
How to Cite
ISSAKHOV, A. A.; ABYLKASSYMOVA, A.. Air transport properties in the human respiratory system by using numerical simulation. Journal of Mathematics, Mechanics and Computer Science, [S.l.], v. 93, n. 1, p. 105-118, june 2018. ISSN 2617-4871. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 20 jan. 2021.
Keywords transport of air in human respiratory system, alveolar state, heat transfer in nasal cavity, Navier-Stokes equations, projection method, finite volume method